The Word Foundation

THE

WORD

JANUARY 1916.


Copyright, 1916, neHW PERCIVAL.

MAMA NESHAMWARI.

Chii chinowanzoreva izwi rekuti “mweya” uye izwi rekuti mweya rinofanira kushandiswa sei?

Izwi iri rinoshandiswa nenzira dzakawanda dzakasiyana. Avo vanozvishandisa vane semitemo isina kujeka pfungwa yezvavanofunga kurongedza ipapo. Zvese zvavanofunga ndezvekuti hachisi chinhu chisiri chinhu; kuti hachisi chinhu chakakomba chemuviri. Kupfuurirazve, izwi iri rinoshandiswa zvisina tsarukano, sezvazviri mune kwoga kune akawanda madhigirii mukuvandudza kwechinhu, uye hapana hurongwa hunogamuchirwa hwekuita madhigirii aya. VaEgipita vakataura pamusoro pemweya minomwe; Plato yemweya mitatu; maKristu vanotaura nezve mweya sechinhu chakasiyana kubva kumweya nemuviri wenyama. Hindu huzivi hunotaura nezvemhando dzakasiyana dzemweya, asi zvakaoma kuisa zvirevo pasi pasi kune system. Vamwe vanyori venyosophical vanosiyanisa pakati pemweya mitatu - mweya werudzi (buddhi), mweya wemunhu (manas), uye Kama, mweya wemhuka. Vanyori veTheosophical havabvumi kuti chii chinofanira kushandiswa mweya mweya. Saka hapana kujeka, hapana conciseness, pamusoro peizvi iro izwi rinoti rinofukidza mune theosophical zvinyorwa zvakasiyana siyana zvisingaonekwi zvisikwa. Naizvozvo, hazvibviri kutaura izvo zvinowanzorehwa neshoko remweya.

Mumataurirwo anozivikanwa mazwi anoti "anoda nemweya nemweya," "Ini ndaapa mweya wangu kuti ndiwane izvozvo," "vhura mweya wangu kwaari," "mutambo wemweya uye kuyerera kwefungwa," "mweya une mweya," "mhuka dzine mweya, ”“ mweya yevakafa, ”inowedzera mukuvhiringidzika.

Zvinoratidzika kuti chimwe chinhu chakafanana ndechekuti mweya unoreva chinhu chisingaonekwe uye chisingawaniki, uye kwete chechinhu chepanyika, uye kuti munyori wega wega anoshandisa izwi kufukidza chikamu chakadaro kana zvikamu zvezvisingaoneki sezvaanonzwa kufadzwa.

Mune zvinotevera zvinopihwa mamwe maonero ekuti izwi rekuti mweya rinofanira kushandiswa sei.

Kudzvinyirira kunoratidzira panguva imwe neimwe yekubuda, chinhu chinofemerwa kunze. Kana chinhu chichizvifema, chinofema sechibvumirano; ndiko kuti, masangano akazvimiririra, zvikamu zvemunhu. Chikamu chega chega chine kugona, kunyangwe chisiri mukana wepo, wekuve mukuru unofungidzirwa. Chikamu chega chega kana chafuridzirwa chine chinhu chehuviri, kureva, rimwe divi riri kuchinja, rimwe risingachinje. Rutivi rwunoshandura chikamu chakaratidzirwa, kusachinja ndicho chisiri chisina kusarudzika kana chikamu chechinhu. Chikamu chakaratidzwa mweya nemweya, simba uye chinhu.

Uku huviri hwomweya nemweya hunowanikwa kuburikidza neyakagadzikwa yese yekuchinja iyo inobudirira imwe neimwe munguva yekuratidzwa.

Chinhu chega chega chinopinda mukubatana nemamwe mauniti, asi chisingatomborasikirwa nekwavo, kunyangwe chisina chiratidzo pakutanga.

Mukupfekera muviri kubva pamatanho ekutanga ezvomweya kusvika mumatanho anotevera ekubata, kureva kuti, mune chinhu chemuviri, mweya unopera kurasikirwa nekutanga, uye zvinhu zvinowana kukwira mumatanho akafanana. Izwi rekuti simba rinoshandiswa panzvimbo yemweya, kwazvinoenderana, nepo nyaya ichishandiswa munzvimbo yemweya.

Mumwe anoshandisa izwi reshoko haafanire kufunga kuti akagovanisa neye mweya mweya uye kuti anoziva kuti chii chinhau. Muchokwadi, zvinogona kuti iye anoziva zvidiki kuti inyaya ipi sezvo iye achiziva icho mweya chii. Iye anoziva nezvechitarisiko kunzwisisiro yehumwe humwe hunhu uye zviitiko zvezvinhu, asi kana chiri icho chinhu chiri, kunze kweizvi, iye haazive, zvakaringana kwete kwenguva yakareba sekuziva kwake kwekunzwa ari chiteshi icho ruzivo runosvika kwaari.

Mweya nemweya nepfungwa hazvifanire kushandiswa nenzira imwe chete semanyorerwe. Mune zvepasi pane kune manomwe mairairo kana makirasi emweya pane mana ndege. Kuraira nomwe kwemweya ndedzemhando mbiri: mweya inodzika nemweya inokwira, iyo inosungisa uye yekushanduka-shanduka. Iwo mweya inodzika isimba, inokurudzirwa, inokurudzirwa kuita chiitiko nemweya. Iwo mweya inokwira iri, kana kana isiri iwo yainofanirwa kunge iri, inosimudzwa uye inotungamirirwa nepfungwa. Echina pamirau nomwe ndiyo Yemweya mweya, yega yega ine madhigirii akawanda munyika mairi. Iwo mweya unosundira mweya unoburuka munzira yekubuda mukati kubva mune zvisingabvumike mumweya mukati meyekitori yemukati kuburikidza nehupenyu hwakasiyana uye mafomu uye zvikamu zvezvisikwa, kusvikira ichikura kana kuunzwa mune chimiro chemuviri wemunhu. Iwo mweya kana chisikwa chinomanikidza mweya kuenda mberi sekuda kwainoita, asi chinofanirwa nepfungwa kusimudzwa se mweya unokwira munzira yekushanduka-shanduka, kuburikidza nemadhigiri akasiyana siyana eimwe yemitemo mitatu kubva kumunhu anofa kusvika kune yekusafa kwaMwari. . Iwo mweya ndiko kutaura, kukosha uye chimiro chemweya, uye hupenyu nekuve hwepfungwa.

Kusiyanisa pakati pemirau minomwe isu tinogona kudaidza mweya inodzika mweya-mweya, hupenyu-mweya, fomu-mweya, zvepabonde-mweya; nemweya wekukwira unoraira mweya yemhuka, mweya yevanhu, uye mweya isingafi. Pamusoro pechina, kana kurongeka kwepabonde, ngazvinzwisiswe kuti mweya hausi bonde. Bonde hunhu hwechinhu chemuviri, mairi mweya yese inofanirwa kushamiswa isati yamutswa munzira yekushanduka kwepfungwa nepfungwa. Imwe yeairairo inovandudza mutsva mutsva mumweya.

Iwo mana mirairo yemweya yezvisikwa haisi uye haigone kuve isingafi pasina rubatsiro rwepfungwa. Ivo varipo semweya wekufema kana hupenyu kana mafomu kwenguva yakareba, uye ipapo vanove mumuviri wenyama kwenguva yakareba. Mushure mechinguva vanorega kuvapo semweya mumuviri uye vanofanirwa kupfuura nenguva yekuchinja inoitika kurufu. Zvino kubva pane shanduko kunouya chitsva, chisikwa chitsva, mune icho dzidzo kana ruzivo mune iyo kurongeka kunoenderera mberi.

Kana pfungwa dzakabatana nemweya kuti uisimudze, pfungwa hadzigone kubudirira. Iwo mweya wemhuka wakanyanya kusimba kune pfungwa uye unoramba kumutswa. Saka zvinofa; inorasikirwa fomu yayo; asi kubva kuchakakosha icho chisingagoni kurasika pfungwa dzinodaidza imwe fomu. Pfungwa dzinobudirira kusimudza mweya kubva kumhuka uchienda kumunhu mamiriro ezvinhu. Imomo mweya unofanirwa kusarudza kuti kana ichida kudzokera kumhuka kana kuenderera kune chisingafi. Inowana kusafa kwayo painenge ichiziva kuzivikanwa kwayo parutivi uye yakazvimirira kubva mundangariro yakayibatsira. Ipapo icho chaive mweya wazova pfungwa, uye pfungwa dzakasimudza mweya kuti dzive pfungwa dzinogona kupfuura kupfuura mana akaratidzwa nyika mune asina kutungamirwa, uye vova mumwe neVamwari Vamwari. Icho mweya uyo wakatsanangurwa mariri iyo yekunyora "Mweya," Kukadzi, 1906, Vol. II, SHOKO.

Kune mweya kana mweya wakabatana nechero chinhu chechinhu kana chisikwa, chinoonekwa uye chisingaoneki; nemuviri wese, ingave muviri kunge uri wemaminerari, miriwo, mhuka kana wekudenga, kana vezvematongerwo enyika, veindasitiri kana hwesangano. Icho chinoshandura muviri. icho chisinga shanduke, apo chichibatirana muviri unoshanduka chakabatana nacho, ndiye mweya.

Izvo murume anoda kuziva hazvisi zvakanyanya pamusoro pehuwandu uye mhando dzemweya; anoda kuziva kuti mweya wemunhu chii. Mweya wemunhu hausi pfungwa. Pfungwa haife. Omweya wemunhu haife, kunyangwe zvingave zvisingafi. Chikamu chepfungwa chinobatana nemweya wemunhu kana kuburukira mumuviri wemunhu; uye izvi zvinodaidzwa kuti kubereka kana kuberekwa kwemukati menyama, kunyangwe iyo nguva yacho isiriyo. Kana mweya wemunhu ukasapa rakawandisa kupokana nepfungwa, uye kana pfungwa ikabudirira muchinangwa chekuzvara kwemunhu, inomutsa mweya wemunhu kubva mudunhu remweya unofa kuenda kunzvimbo yekusafa. Ipapo icho chaive mweya wemunhu unofa chinova chisinga peri - pfungwa. Chikristu, uye kunyanya dzidziso yekuregererwa kwakasanganiswa, yakavakirwa pachinhu ichi.

Mune imwe pfungwa uye ishoma mweya wemunhu ndiyo fomu yekufungisisa uye isinga gone, iyo wraith kana ghost yemuviri wenyama, iyo inobata chimiro nezvimiro zveiyo inogara ichichinja muviri wenyama pamwe nekuichengetedza yakasimba. Asi mweya wemunhu unopfuura izvi; hunhu. Iwo mweya wemunhu kana hunhu chisikwa chakanakisa, isangano rakakura, mairi rakabatanidzwa nekuda kwezvinangwa, vamiriri kubva kumirairo yose yekutsika mweya. Hunhu kana mweya wemunhu unobata pamwe uye unosanganisira wekunze uye wekunzwa pfungwa nemukati memitezo yawo, uye unodzora nekuenderana mabasa avo epanyama nepfungwa, uye unochengetedza ruzivo uye ndangariro mukati menguva yekuvapo kwayo. Asi kana mweya wemunhu unofa usina kumutswa uchibva kune unofa — kana usati waita pfungwa — ipapo mweya kana hunhu hunofa. Kumutswa kwemweya kuti uve pfungwa kunofanirwa kuitirwa pasati parufu. Izvi zvinova pfungwa zvinoreva kuti munhu anoziva nezvekuzvimiririra akasarudzika uye kunze kwemuviri wenyama uye ekunze uye kwemukati pfungwa. Nerufu rwehunhu kana mweya wemunhu mweya inomiririra inorisunungura. Ivo vanodzokera kune yavo chaiyo kuraira yekuburuka mweya, kupinda zvakare mukubatanidzwa kwemweya wemunhu. Kana mweya wemunhu ukafa hazvisizvo uye kwete kazhinji kurasika. Kune icho mukati mayo chisingafi kana muviri waro wenyama nemweya wemweya uchinge waparara. Icho cheomweya wemunhu chisingafi ihwo hutachiona husingaonekwe, hutachiona hutachiona, kubva pahwo hunonzi hunhu hutsva kana mweya wemunhu nekutenderera uko kwakavakwa muviri mutsva. Icho chinodaidza hutachiona hwehunhu kana mweya ndiyo pfungwa, apo iyo pfungwa inogadzirira kana kugadzirira kuita miviri. Iko kuvakwazve kwehunhu hwemweya wemunhu ndiko hwaro hwakavakirwa dzidziso yekumuka.

Kuti uzive marudzi ese emweya mweya munhu anoda analytical uye ruzivo rwakakwana hwesainzi, pakati pavo chemistry, biology uye physiology. Ipapo ndipo panofanirwa kusiya twistings isu tinodaidza metaphysics. Iro izwi rinofanira kumira nehurongwa hwepfungwa sekururamisa uye sekuvimbika sedzemasvomhu. Isu takashongedzerwa nehurongwa hwakadai uye nezvakawanda zvesainzi, isu taizobva tave neiyo chaiyo psychology, sainzi yemweya. Kana munhu achizozvida achachiwana.

HW Percival